1. Buffer Busy wait Event :
can occur when a session wants to access a database block in the buffer cache but it can not as the buffer is busy. This can occur if either another session is reading the block in to the buffer or another session holds the buffer in an incompatible mode to our request.
Buffer busy waits are common in IO bound storage subsystems.
These waits indicate read/read, read/write or write/write contention.
The Oracle session is waiting to pin a buffer, a buffer must be pinned before it can be read or modified.
Only one process can pin a buffer at any one time.
It is also often due to several processes repeatedly reading the same block. (hot blocks )
- Eliminate HOT blocks from the application. Check for repeatedly scanned/unselective indexes.
- Try rebuilding the object with a higher PCTFREE so that you reduce the number of rows per block.
- Increase INITRANS and MAXTRANS and reduce PCTUSED This will make the table less dense.
- Reduce the number of rows per block.
- Replace higher IO subsystesm.
2. Free buffer waits:
- Session is waiting for buffer to be available in buffer cache but it's not able to find free buffer because there are too many dirty buffer in the buffer cache.
- The main cause of it is either buffer cache is too small or the DBWR is not able to write dirty buffers to disk fast enough.
- DBWR is unable to keep up to the write requestes.
- Checkpoint happening too fast - may be due to high database activity and under-sized online redo log files.
- Large sorts and full table scans are filling the buffer cache with modified block faster than the DBWR is able to write to the disk.
- Analyze the buffer cache and SGA/AMM related parameters and increase SGA/AMM appropriately.
- Analyze the DBWR slaves and increase it if required.
3. Cache buffer chain latch:
The cache buffers LRU chain Oracle metric latches protect the lists of buffers in the cache. When adding, moving, or removing a buffer from a list, a latch must be obtained to prevent RAM corruption and ensure that only one process handles the list of buffer addresses.
Possible Causes :
· Processes need to get this latch when they need to move buffers based on the LRU block replacement policy in the buffer cache
· The cache buffer lru chain latch is acquired in order to introduce a new block into the buffer cache and when writing a buffer
back to disk, specifically when trying to scan the LRU (least recently used) chain containing all the dirty blocks in the buffer
cache. Competition for the cache buffers lru chain .
· latch is symptomatic of intense buffer cache activity caused by inefficient SQL statements. Statements that repeatedly scan
· large unselective indexes or perform full table scans are the prime culprits.
· Heavy contention for this latch is generally due to heavy buffer cache activity which can be caused, for example, by:
Repeatedly scanning large unselective indexes
Contention in this latch can be avoided implementing multiple buffer pools or increasing the number of LRU latches with the parameter DB_BLOCK_LRU_LATCHES (The default value is generally sufficient for most systems).
Its possible to reduce contention for the cache buffer lru chain latch by increasing the size of the buffer cache and thereby reducing the rate at which new blocks are introduced into the buffer cache.